METSOVION INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH
Abstracts of the 2nd Interdisciplinary Interuniversity Conference of the N.T.U.A.
"Technology, Culture/Civilisation and Decentralisation"
D. Rokos, Professor, N.T.U.A., Remote Sensing Laboratory, N.T.U.A.
Metsovion Interdisciplinary Research
Centre (M.I.R.C), N.T.U.A.
Civilisation, as the total social heritage of material and spiritual values and phenomena created by humanity in the course of its history, evidently contains both technology and decentralisation (as a form of economic, social and political organisation).
Consequently, the civilisation of each social group and each nation characterises, in each historical period, their level of development in the fields of science and technology, education, letters and arts, ideas, philosophy, ethics and related institutions in general, in the way that these are always related to, interdependent and interacting with the values, the mode and the relations of production, distribution and consumption of material goods.
This paper attempts, in the current specific social and political conditions of absolute market dominance, a critical consideration, approach and analysis of technology, civilisation and decentralisation, through the prism of both the fundamental assertion of historical materialism, according to which “the mode of production of material goods constitutes the foundation of all of society’s social and spiritual life” and consequently, of civilisation as a social phenomenon, and of the basic conception of idealistic philosophy, according to which the development of civilisation has been based solely “on consciousness, on spirit, on the actions of ingenious personalities, etc.”
In this context, an integrated investigation of the multidimensional relations, interdependencies, and interactions of technology, civilisation and decentralisation is attempted, in the way that these are established, evolve, are transformed and distorted under the global, now, regime of market monocracy and globalisation, and of their absolute dominance in society and politics.
The reason is that today, technology, as a crossroads and creative synthesis of elements of both the spiritual (ideas, science, research, education, politics) and the material (practical experience, mode of production) dimensions of civilisation, tends, in the absence of a critical evaluation of the purpose, necessity and usefulness of its findings, to serve, mainly and exclusively, market interests, contributing to the development of a distorted modern civilisation of fierce competition and “new products and services”.
In this direction, beyond and irrespectively of society’s real needs, the marketcreates, boisterously promotes and finally imposes new –usually fictitious- needs, while governments and transnational organisations create the necessary presuppositions (rendering of the greatest part of national and transnational resources, multidimensional encouragement, and also, funding of related research and adjunct innovating activities etc.), for technology to satisfy them, by providing constantly “modernised” new products and services of the broadest possible consumption.
Inevitable consequences of such a process are:
· the rapidly expanding and continuously and limitlessly intensified concentration, centralisation and accumulation of capital, population and entrepreneurial activities, both spatially and temporally, (or decentralisation, only when the exploitation of human and natural resources of the periphery is safe in the long run and exceptionally profitable), always with unfavourable impacts on the natural and social environment,
· the consecutive mergencies of big transnational -mainly, but not only high-tech- companies and the suffocating and one-dimensional guiding of technology by their constantly expanding markets,
· the often rediculous and undocumented apotheosis of “the private” as opposed to “the social”,
· the levelling imposition, at the global level, of uniform and massive standards of life and civilisation, and of production, distribution and consumption models
· the gradual elimination of local cultures and traditions and
· the inevitable interlacement of the interests of the new -post-bipolar- order of the one remaining superpower, the market and its subsidiary mass media and information networks, with those of their political servants and their mercenaries or “ideologist” apologists.
Finally, conclusions are drawn and proposals are formulated for the restoration of “the norm” in the relation of technology to civilisation and decentralisation:
· through the accentuation of the potentially catalytic role of active, conscious and responsible citizens as creators, scientists, producers and employees and of the existing and real possibilities of their effective contribution,
· through the restoration of the values of politics as an affair of the citizens, and as an ethical action and not a market “instrument”,
· through the strengthening of social cohesion as a factor of integrated development, which “will either be simultaneously social, economic, political, technical/technological, cultural and respectfully and dialectically harmonious with the natural and cultural environment or will not exist at all”, and most importantly,
· through creative opposition to the degeneration of education/learning/culture to one-dimensional technical professional training of cheap, expendable, and flexible “employables”, destined -unless they want to be unemployed and marginalised- to unprotestedly support the choices of the uncontrolled and limitless competition of the globalised market.
Pour une approche interdisciplinaire des cultures régionales.
Problèmes de théorie et de méthode.
L’ étude des cultures régionales doit envisager, au préalable, et resoudre quelques problèmes théoriques et méthodologiques importants. Le prémier est à quelles domaines de recherche correspond la culture; pourquoi une approche interdisciplinaire?
Suivant la théorie sémiotique des phénomènes culturels, la culture est conçue comme un système sémiotique complexe, comprenant plusieurs systèmes particuliers, qui correspondent aux plusieurs domaines cognitifs, c’ est-à-dire, aux plusieurs domaines de recherche scientifique; d’ où provient la neccessité d’ une recherche interdisciplinaire et d’ une approche synchronique des phénomènes et des structures culturelles.
Les systèmes qui constituent l’ espace à rechercher peuvent se regrouper en trois ensembles: a. ceux qui se réfèrent à la nature comme entourage de l’ homme et lieu où s’ exercent les activités de la société humaine; b. ceux qui correspondent à la société et ses activités socio-economiques; c. ceux qui comprennent les expressions et la productivité culturelles.
La deuxième question théorique et méthodologique est comment s’ articulent entre eux ces trois domaines!
Nous avons déjà proposé, dans nos études socio-sémiotiques de la littérature, (voir les références ci-dessous), le schema suivant: a. les rapports entre la base sociale et les phénomènes culturels sont d’ ordre métonymique; b. les relations entre les structures et systèmes qui appartiennent au même niveau, celui de la productivité culturelle, sont d’ ordre métaphorique. Nous pouvons maintenant completer ce schema par la constatation que les relations qui unissent le niveau de la nature au celui de la société sont aussi d’ ordre métonymique.
Cette articulation de trois domaines à rechercher, peut orienter la mise en rapport et la combinaison des donnés de la recherche interdiscriplinaire. La troisième question porte sur la méthode d’ homologation des resultats.
Pour envisager ce problème, on a besoin d’ une perspective généralisante commune, comme celle de la théorie semiotique des systèmes culturels, qui conçoit la culture comme système semiotique et sémantique. Dans cette perspective méthodologique, l’ homologation des resultats peut s’ effectuer au niveau sémantique.
La dernière question porte sur les critères typologiques qui peuvent faire ressortir les traits pertinents de la culture regionale, où se marque la coherence interne et l’ orientation culturelle du système.
L’ experience de recherche dans certains domaines des sciences humaines nous a démontré que la relation binaire nature vs culture assume plusieurs rapports homoloques fondamentales qui se réfèrent à une isotopie cosmologique au moyen de laquelle s’ exprime la vision du monde de la société. En correlation étroite avec le pair nature vs culture se troure le pair individu vs société, qui se réfère à une isotopie sociale, au moyen de laquelle s’ exprime l’ idéologie de la société regionale.
Environmentally sustainable selections, for an integrated
development of mountain areas. Contemporary means and tools
A. Athanasouli, Architect, Dr. Urban and Regional Planning, Senior Consultant of the Minister of the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works
The recognition of the importance of mountain areas, as well as new approaches to their development, are explicitly referred to in chapter 13, Agenda 21 of the Rio Declaration. It was the first time the whole issue of “Sustainable Development for Mountain Areas” was raised.
New approaches to the development of mountainous areas, which are reinforced by the need for protection of the mountains’ natural environment, historical and cultural heritage, have already appeared at European and International level.
The design of a specialised development strategy, which conforms to the needs and special characteristics of mountain areas, via an integrated and multisectoral approach, is therefore being applied.
This paper begins with an analytical report on the special characteristics of mountain areas (tremendous biodiversity, sensitive ecosystems, tradition and cultural wealth).
It goes on with the presentation of development tendencies and pressures imposed on mountain areas and their impact on natural and human ecosystems. Specific policies and activities, which are intended to harmonise development policies and selections with the objectives and principles of sustainable development, as well as contemporary supporting means and tools, are finally proposed.
Local culture, endogenous development and educational policy
H. Sianou-Kyrgiou, Assistant Professor,
The present project refers
to the intricate relation among local culture, endogenous development and
educational policy. We accept the given contribution of local culture to
economic and social development, as well as the special meaning of cultural
policy and of the economy of culture for its utilisation. This project, though,
is based on the well-founded hypothesis that utilisation depends highly on
educational policy, since the functions of education play a primary role in
every form of developmental procedure and in every form procedure related to
cultural reproduction. Specifically, the analysis that follows briefly
describes data that come from the critical approach to the educational policy
The attempted decentralisation of the educational system is limited to transposing responsibilities of lesser importance, while central control is reinforced in indirect ways, especially through internal changes in the system of supervision and administration. The university, in particular, is subject to the consequences of its functional transformation and of the lack of national planning for basic and applied research, that is the prerequisite for the utilisation of the elements comprising local culture. In a first attempt to explain the data, we come to the conclusion that the educational policy facilitates the penetration of the market force in education, something that is necessary for the accumulation of capital and for cultural reproduction, rather than for the utilisation of local culture through endogenous development.
Information technologies underpinning access to cultural
heritage and decentralisation
N. Mitrou, Associate Professor, Telecommunications Laboratory,
Computer Science Division, N.T.U.A.
Technology, cultural heritage and decentralization, the three keywords of the present conference, are also keywords of this presentation. It examines, in particular, the role of the telecommunication and computer technologies, now unified as telematics, in facilitating the access to cultural heritage and decentralization. The topic is extremely broad, thus only an outline of it will be presented here, with emphasis on the latest developments of digital technologies and their sound applications.
A Telemedicine system satisfying needs of the inhabitants
of isolated areas
N. K. Uzounoglou,
Computer Systems, N.T.U.A.
V.E. Kouloulias, Physisist, PhD Electrical Engineering, MD, Institute of
Communication and Computer Systems, N.T.U.A.
The continuous development of telematics and information systems technology has created the framework for the development of a wide range of applications. Telemedicine, one of the most important and rapidly growing areas, enables the entire health sector to benefit from access to telematics services.
In this work, an integrated telemedicine system
was developed. This system aims to provide effective health care services in
isolated places, such as the widely spread Aegean
· a multimedia personal computer
· a Windows based software for the storage, management and transmission of medical data
· an electronic photometer for blood sample analysis
· a microscope equipped with a high resolution colour CCD camera
· a digital electrocardiograph
· a high speed modem
The software installed automatically collects data from the medical devices connected and from the medical practitioners’ diagnosis and stores them in a multimedia relational database. The fixed telecommunication network of the Hellenic Telecommunications Organisation is used for the transmission of multimedia records (medical microscope image, EEG, patient’s personal records, blood sample analysis, plain radiography and other radiological medical data). The medical data transmitted are collected in central sites (hospitals) where they are evaluated by specialised physicians. After the medical data processing, results are transmitted back to the peripheral station for the patients’ health care management.
The specified system is based on existing technology and has an affordable cost for small and medium size medical units. It is fully expandable to a diagnosis support system (with several add-on, such as specialised image processing software).
Using GIS technology in investigating Emergency Medical
E. Dimopoulou, Dr. Surveying Engineer, Laboratory of Photogrammetry, NTUA
of Architectural Technology and Spatial Planning,
GIS technology can be useful
for investigating the geographic distribution of emergency cases, such as
Trauma incidents and medical facilities provided. This paper evaluates Trauma
data for the Region of Western Greece, as part of a funded Research Program
elaborated by the Department of Surgery and the Laboratory of Architectural
Technology and Spatial Planning of the
Based upon the above
results, along with the experience gained by the study, a project can be
designed with the objective of improving emergency medical treatment for the
The rediscovery of mountainous archaeological sites
forming historical cultural
The possibilities of modern technologies
E. Stournas - Triantis, Architect, M. Arch. PhD
The research programme
described above aims at the use of modern technologies in order to enhance our
existing knowledge on the relation of individual archaeological sites and
monuments in mountainous regions of
The sites to be studied in
The following regions have been selected, each combined with archeological remains of a particular historic period:
The outcome of this project will be produced for each site and presented in the following forms:
· Information documents and pamphlets
· Site maps and
· Access routes diagrams
Documentation through multi media (CD-ROM, Video, WWW.page).
This material will be used to broaden public awareness and as a means of approaching unknown sites belonging to the European cultural Heritage by means of:
a) The electronic network
b) The organization of international cultural events. (Lectures, performances, festivals, e.t.c.)
c) Organized visits to the sites in concern (European Cultural Routes) provided that accessibility is assured.
The Conservation, Promotion and Protection of the Monuments
of Nature and Culture as a component of the sustainable
development of Mountainous
G. Panagiaris, Dr. Biologist, Professor T.E.I. of
of Antiquities and Works of Art.
The creation of the
Alpine Ridges has resulted in the formation of
and of narrow flat or hilly coastal zones.
So, our country which 4/5 of its mass is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain is characterised by its rapidly changing landscape and geological formations, a variety of circumstances and geographical isolation of small regions to such a large degree which is not prominent in any other Mediterranean country.
The Greek climate is a mixture of different micro-climates which lead to a variety in fauna and flora.
All the above combined with
Just these factors are the main resources for the sustainable development of these regions, especially there where the geomorphology doesn’t allow rich and yieldy development of primary production sector.
Their conservation, promotion and protection are the main requirements, not only for the resources to remain unchanged and profitable but for the preservation of the collective memory of the local community and for the formation of particular behaviour which could support the sustainability.
In this paper an effort has been made to clarify the economic and developmental role of the natural and cultural heritage of Mountainous Greece.
What is being described is the history of conservation of natural and cultural heritage from “the period of adoration of the object” to “ the period of survival of its information” focused on the modern developmental role of conservation works via activities of education, research, promotion and protection of nature and culture.
Examples of the above are presented and commented on from all mountainous regions of the country.
A Zerzoulis's letter to Balanos Vassilopoulos (1754)
K. Petsios, Lecturer of Philosophy,
Section of Philosophy, University of Ioannina.
The aim of this essay
is to explain the positions, which are expressed by Neo-Hellene philosopher Nikolaos Zerzoulis (1710-1773) in
a letter (1754) to his old teacher, Balanos
Vassilopoulos in Ioannina. The opportunity was given
by the presentation of "the solution of the Delion
problem", by Balanos Vassilopoulos, to the
Academies of Europe. Zerzoulis makes some remarks,
which allow us to form a clear opinion on the condition of Education during the
Musical groups of the community of mountainous areas
The example of Metsovo
Á. Ìane, PhD Candidate, Laography Section,
Department of History and Archaeology,
Musical groups are an element of conservation of the cultural tradition of mountainous areas. In this paper, I will be referring to the music of the “solotechnical” groups, that is the musical groups that form part of the social life of the inhabitants of the countryside, as well as the cities, and to their courses in time and place, which accompany people’s social sensitivity.
The musical groups (keep and) create the local version of the musical legacy -a piece of national heritage- making social aspects known, together with their economic identity, but mostly, with the magnitude and the character of civilisation.
The study of the local musical tradition becomes of particular importance, when it incubates social, financial and cultural history. Traditional life, social relationships, the bonding with both tradition and development mark the cultural reality of the function of a musical group within the social context. Thus, the history of the musical groups, with personal versions and social peculiarities, markedly outlines local history.
History, legends and traditions, a journey from the depths of the
centuries until today,
bonds and connections with Metsovo
Tr. Sioulis, Instructor, PhD Candidate, Department of History and
With this essay, an attempt is made to introduce the history of the village Votonosi, its connection and its bonds with Metsovo, along with their common journey from the depths of the centuries until today. Also, there is an attempt to refer to the legends and the traditions created by the imagination of the village people or based on historic or other events.
In the beginning, a detailed description of the village is presented, along with a parallel reference to today’s reality, to the increases and decreases of the population, and the occupations of the inhabitants.
A historic retrospection is then attempted, which starts from the Ancient Ages and continues into the Roman and Byzantine times, the years of Turkish rule and later the modern years.
In this framework, evidence of valid researchers and archaeologists, referring to the archaeological findings which have survived, and information on the epochs which these findings represent, are presented. Also, there is a reference to the walls which lie near a hill of the village and confirm the existence of a population in the area from the Prehistoric Ages until the Roman Ages, while historic sources confirm the continuous existence and the active life of the inhabitants in the area during the Byzantine years, much more during the years of the Turkish Empire and later in the modern years.
Specifically, for the years of Turkish rule and the modern years, the historic sources refer mainly to Metsovo, but with explicit references to the villages around it, among them Votonosi, which after a period of time follows the historic destiny of the wider area around it, with Metsovo of today as Capital. The latter’s ancients inhabitants, as is shown, lived in the area of Votonosi and gradually, for several reasons, many of them left to reach and live in the area today called Metsovo.
There is an attempt in some way to prove and support the assertion which implies that the descent and origin of the inhabitants of Votonosi and Metsovo are common, an event which is confirmed by historic evidence, but is also connected with common customs, habits, language, last names, relationships, names of places etc., which are refer to bonds existing for centuries.
The various-type development of Metsovo and its part
in the new economy and geography
PhD Candidate, Sociology Department,
least fifty years, a large region of the Greek state,
The reasons were that the area, due to cold war
facts, was capable of accepting as indispensable plans, only military ones, but
mainly, that the centre, after the civil war, realised a policy of
During that period, a historic community of
After 1989, a year which
brought changes all over the world,
Yet, during the previous
will be restricted to its touristic role and to the
“weekend escape”. The emigration of its youngsters, either abroad or to
this paper, after a historical analysis of
A network of local rambler
A proposition towards sustainable development of the Metsovo area
G. Tsotsos, Surveying Engineer, PhD Candidate
C. Kousidonis, Architect, Regional Planner, PhD
E. Dimitriadis, Associate Professor, School of Architecture,
investigates the feasibility of a network of local rambler trails in the
greater Metsovo area, in the region of
Further on, the necessary conditions and repercussions of the proposed network in relation to the settlement system and administrative areas are examined. The administrative areas have undergone a major restructuring through the 1997 law, known as Kapodistrias, concerning the local administration in both its administrative and spatial planning dimensions. The paper addresses the Local Administration Organizations (‘dimi’ and ‘kinotites’) with the opportunity to evaluate the establishment of the proposed network in the competitive context of tourist development as a means for attaining sustainability.
Bioresource Utilization for Sustainable Development in the Metsovo Area
E. Koukios, Professor N.T.U.A.
E. Avgerinos, Chemical Engineer, PhD Candidate, N.T.U.A.
Students and Members of the Bioresource Technology Unit
Department of Chemical Engineering, N.T.U.A.
This study is the result of series of student papers prepared by Undergradute Students and supervised by Graduate Students at the Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens. The whole exercise took place in the framework of the course: “Biomass Utilization” (9th Semester, Part of the Organic Industries Option). The aim of the particular studies was to further investigate the relationship between technology, culture and decentralisation in the specific technological field, focusing on the case of the Metsovo area.
The whole “package” of studies aims at an evaluation of the current situation and the prospects of future developments within three major local fields of the economy: agriculture and agro-industry, animal farming and respective industry, as well as forestry and wood industry.
The capacity of local agriculture in growing conventional crops is limited, so the possibility of growing aromatic plants for a production of essential oils and other high-value products was examined. As a mountain area, Metsovo has the potential for animal farming, nevertheless of limited quality and quantity spectrum. In the field of wood production and conversion, we have identified a rather insufficient use of the local production capacities of forests (137 km2 - utilization only 0.98 m3/km2/year).
Other interesting issues studied included the potential application of new bioenergy technologies, wastewater treatment, and possibilitites for industrial growth based on the use of local biological resources, e.g. of a pulp-and-paper mill.
Bioenergy utilization is extremely important for the whole area, as a means to cover the local energy needs in an environmental friendly way. Such potential bioenergy applications include district heating of houses in the municipality, small mobile biomass pyrolysis unit, as well as biomass combustion for household use, in addition to production of biogas and bio ethanol by anaerobic digestion of cheese whey and liquid waste from animal breeding.
Installation of a pulp-and-paper mill in the area could permit utilization of wood resources from the surrounding regions as well, with the limiting factor being the economics of production.
In a final study, the students examined the relationship between the eco-development and eco-tourism in Metsovo, taking into account the local ecosystem as well as the local priorities: use of natural resources, protection of the environment, quality of life, traditions, and sustainable development.
Cluster for recreation in Metsovo, led by the restoration and
reuse of a traditional water-mill
N. Kordali, Architecture Engineer, N.T.U.A.
The theme of this study is placed in Metsovo, specifically at the foot of the steep slope where the picturesque town is perched. The occasion has been an abandoned water-mill, one of those that someone often meets by the rivers throughout the greek countryside and whose traces disappear as time passes by. The water-mill was used almost exclusively for the grinding of cereals. Its construction consisted of a simple rectangular building, which was housing the mechanisms, the focal point of the mill: a mobility mechanism with a paddle-wheel and a grinding mechanism with millstones. The need for constructions for gathering, storing and channeling water greatly increased the cost of building and conserving the whole system.
The restoration of a building destined to house a specific function (the need for which no longer exists) is a point of particular speculation. Considering that with the choice of a solution that deprives a building, which is located outside the inhabited area and cannot be very easily approached, of its usage character, you are essentially issuing its death sentence, the effort focused on the support of the use of the mill, framed by other equivalent uses and the creation of the constructions necessary for them. The whole theme is a game of multiple balances: the usage building of the mill must keep its character, despite the changes in needs that time has effected. On the other hand, you have to attract people, in spite of the long distance from the town and fill the building with life. Simultaneously, the possible new uses and constructions should obey the basic principle followed by the preexisting mill, the Need, while, at the same time, you ought to i) respect the balance which is defined by nature and the old building, which literally vanishes into the landscape and ii) ensure that the presence of modern constructions is clearly signified, without imitating, though at the same time, it must blend in the existing environment (structured or not), without insulting or rivaling it, but harmoniously coexisting.
The main trunk of the solution that was chosen is a route which leads from Metsovo to my cluster and crosses the road that joins the monasteries of Virgin Maria and Saint Nikolaos, making the “Mill” a binding ring and a pleasant intermediate stop. The water-mill and the area around it are converted to a place of recreation. The building itself, keeping one of the two preexistent mechanisms in operation, hosts a traditional pasta-making workshop which, beyond its educational character, can also yield economic benefits for the Municipality, where it belongs.
A new building, beside the old mill, houses a generator to produce electric power in order to cover the needs of the cluster. Its function leans on the same principle with that of the mill, i.e. the conversion of the water’s dynamic energy into motional energy by means of a paddle-wheel and finally, into electricity (for the case of the generator). Emphasizing the educational content of the cluster, there is, in the same building, an exhibition of the various manners of using water potential though time (water-mills, water-saw-mills, etc.). Another, bigger building is located between the building of generator and the river, containing a refreshment-room and restaurant, supplied with the appropriate auxiliary spaces and external and internal sitting-rooms (so that it can be used in all seasons), with an amazing view of the forest and the town of Metsovo, which literally hangs over your head.
Special attention is given to the clear differentiation of the new buildings from the older ones, by means of the different technology and materials that are used for their realization (wood and copper leaves for the coverage of roofs), whose selection had, as main rule, their harmonization with the sensitive natural environment.
The buildings are connected by shelters and wooden floors that prescribe
stops as well as specific routes, in which the
straight line that is traced with a direction of North to South dominates
and daringly extends over the river, in response to the call of the opposite
shore, to cross the river and enjoy its own charms. The wooden bridge offers
views of unique beauty (like the little water-falls of the dam of Metsovitikos river), in themselves a reason for getting
from Metsovo down to the “Mill”, while at the same
time, it makes the cluster a connective point between the town and the opposite
slope with its village (Anilio). The walk can be
continued to the small
Surely, every issue can be faced in countless ways. My suggestion means to serve the passer-by or the indigenous inhabitant of Metsovo of today, not by inviting them to the depth of the gorge just to show how our grandfathers were grinding cereals years ago, but rather, longing for the central part that the river with its small industries once used to play for the life of the community, it vindicates -for the Mill- the position of a life knot that separates and joins elements inside and outside the town.
Open air hydrological museum in Anthochori, Metsovo
S. Voyadjis, Architect, PhD, N.T.U.A.
This paper presents proposals for the conservation and rehabilitation of the water mill of Anthochori and the construction of an open air hydrological museum.
Development of a multimedia
Land Information System
for the registration, presentation, protection and
A. Gogos, Rural and Surveying Engineer
J. Yannelos, Rural and Surveying Engineer
C. Danielides, PhD Candidate, N.T.U.A.
A. Labropoulos, PhD Candidate, N.T.U.A.
P. Zentelis, Assistant Professor, N.T.U.A.
Laboratory of Photogrammetry, N.T.U.A.
and monasteries in
This project develops a multimedia (using audiovisual information such as pictures, video-clips and sound-clips) Land Information System, in order to present, to register, to protect and to maintain the holly temples and monasteries of Metsovo County, which consists of the Municipality of Metsovo (with 13 churches and 2 monasteries), and the Communities of Anelio (4 churches), Anthohori (2 churches), Votonossi (2 churches), Milea (3 churches) and Chrissovitsa (2 churches). Additionally, one isolated monastery is located in Anthohori and another near Zagorochoria.
The system’s main objective was to link geographical to descriptive information, such as pictures, comments and explanatory text, in a way that data-access and retrieval would be facilitated even for an inexperienced user. The system’s database is structured in a way that geographical data can be accessed easily in various ways. The most important aspect of the system is that this database can be expanded and brought up to date anytime, according to the user’s needs, so that the information provided, should always be useful.
Development of a Land
Information System using Multimedia to create a Civilisation Guide for
M. Alexandrou, Rural and Surveying Engineer
C. Danielidis, PhD Candidate, N.T.U.A.
A. Labropoulos, PhD Candidate, N.T.U.A.
P. Zentelis, Assistant Professor, N.T.U.A.
Laboratory of Photogrammetry, N.T.U.A.
project developed a multimedia Land Information System. The application was
The project’s interface was designed to be user-friendly, and was structured in an expandable an updateable way, enabling its use in the future.
The multimedia data included in the system consists of
digitized audiovisual information such as pictures, video-clips, music and
sound-clips. These data topics refer to people’s everyday activities and
civilisation issues of
For the system’s operation, a database (tables containing entities’ attributes) was structured in order to link entities to the corespondent attributes and multimedia data. The environment chosen for developing the system was G.I.S. ArcView 3.0, due to its user-friendly interface as well as its expanding and updating ability.
As a result to the system’s specialized design, which was described above, the application is easy to use and the information included can be retrieved just by clicking on a tool or a menu, without demanding any specialized knowledge in computer use.
The application described has the potential to be used by any individual user interested in knowing more about Metsovo County, but also, by local authorities as a means of better organizing and developing the district.
Ôechnical-geological conditions and technical-geological map
of the city of
N. Fytrolakis, Professor, Division of Geological Sciences
M. Antoniou, Assistant Professor, Division of Geological Sciences
Department of Mining Engineering and Metallurgy, N.T.U.A.
This study was carried out as a scientific offer of the Technical University of Athensto the city of Metsovo. It is composed of a technical-geological map of the Metsovo city area, at scale 1:2.500. The Technical-geological map and a city planning diagram have been deposited at the town-hall. This city planning diagram shows the main sites of the city in which crevices or deformations appear on buildings’ walls (coloured and at scale 1:2.500).
The geological formations were differentiated in four main lithological unities, according to the rock which predominates in each one (thickbedded mudstones and sandstones, thinbedded mudstones, alternation of shales and thinbedded mudstones and beds of clay shales and marls). Besides these primary formations, two secondary ones have been distinguished, namely old and recent moved soil-masses and the mantle of rock waste. Each one is characterized by a different mechanical behaviour.
Generally, the most serious problems in building and construction of technical works, is expected to be confronted in the eastern and southern part of the city. All these problems are due to the reduced shearing strength of the soils and by extension, to their sliding tendency.
Buildings with crevices and deformations on the walls are mainly localized in the same areas.
Foundation with cast in situ piles is suggested in the cases that the soil creeping goes relatively deep into the ground.
In the dipping beds of the thickbedded and thinbedded mudstones with the shale alternations, foundation on a base slab of concrete, which must be laid on a flat and clean background, is suggested.
In order to prevent and restrict phenomena of soil-masses creeping and sliding, the drainage of rain and spring gushing up water is suggested. City authorities as well as private citizens can be involved in the above matter.
No earthquake epicentres exist in the Metsovo city area, but the area is shaken by earthquakes, the epicentres of which can be located in adjoining areas. Building strains due to the earthquakes which happen from time to time affect the buildings cumulatively and cause soil micromovings (creepings).
Chemical and microbiological characteristics of the main
springs of Metsovo area
J. Kyroussis, Assistant Professor, Division of Geological Sciences
N. Fytrolakis, Professor, Division of Geological Sciences
Department of Mining Engineering and Metallurgy, N.T.U.A.
In this paper, the geological, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the water of the main springs of Metsovo area are examined.
Eight (8) of the springs originated from the formation of Flysch and three (3) from the ophiolitic nappe.
From the study of the chemical diagrams (fig. 1, 2, 3, 3a, 4 and 5), we conclude:
· From the chemical point of view, all samples examined are suitable for drinking.
· From the microbiological point of view, most springs are not suitable for drinking.
· All springs are suitable for irrigation.
· There is not any serious contamination by heavy metals.
The contribution of analogue and digital remote sensing methods in detecting landslides in the Metsovo area
E. Rokos, Geologist, PhD Candidate, N.T.U.A.
N. Fytrolakis, Professor, Division of Geological Sciences,
Department of Mining Engineering and Metallurgy, N.T.U.A.
In this paper the systematic study of a probable reactivation or other changes in a big landslide during the period 1946-1987 is presented. The landslide was identified in the stereo-pair of the air-photos 200668-200669 taken on 31.7.1987, at 1:6,000 scale, south of Metsovo. This study is part of broader research on the contribution of analogue and digital remote sensing methods and techniques to the exploration of landslides in the Metsovo area.
The Metsovo area lithologically consists of flysche formations of the Pindos zone and probably of the Gavrovos-Tripoli zone. The area where the landslide was detected, consists of alternations of sandstone strata with silty clay and marls.
The evolution of the landslide through time, from 1946 to 1987, was studied with the aid of analogue and digital remote sensing methods and techniques, regarding its boundaries, three-dimensional form and shape.
For that purpose, the following stereo-pairs of black and white air-photos of the Metsovo-Anilio area were used (courtesy of the Army Map Service of Greece):
a. 35531-35532, scale 1:2,000, date 10.9.1946
b. 9677-9678, scale 1:16,000, date 25.9.1959
c. 105968-105969, scale 1:12,000, date 24.6.1978
d. 153422-153423, scale 1:12,000, date 19.6.1983
e. 200668-200669, scale 1:6,000, date 31.7.1987
These stereo-pairs were studied with lens and mirror stereoscopes in order to define the boundaries of the landslide area in each period and detect the changes that took place in this area.
The air-photos were then scanned with the aid of a scanner (HP Scanjet 4c), geometrically corrected using ground control points and referenced on the 200668 air-photo of 1987, in order to facilitate their correlation and processing, taking into consideration that they are central projections of the earth’s surface.
The next step in this study was digitizing the boundaries of the landslide area on each date, in order to study the possible changes that took place in the shape and the size of the landslide area.
Finally, unsupervised classifications were carried out for each air-photo, in order to divide the landslide area into three classes (bare soil, vegetation and shades, low vegetation).
The differentiation of the boundaries of each class on each date, shows the specific and characteristic changes in the landslide area.
The digitizing and geometric correction (rectification) processes and the multiple digital analysis of the air-photos were achieved with the aid of ER Mapper (image processing of satellite images and GIS).
The conclusions of this first stage of the research are :
· During the period 1946-1987 there was no extension of the landslide area.
· There were no new landslide phenomena visible in the air-photos, inside the research area.
· There was a considerable increase in vegetation cover, mostly after 1978. This rise is due both to human intervention (in order to improve the landscape, protect the soil and prevent further landslide phenomena) and growth of natural vegetation.
In the next research stage, the aim is to develop a method of automatic detection of possible landslide phenomena with the aid of satellite image processing and to validate them by ground checking.
A Comparison of the Quality and Accuracy of Classifications
of SPOT XS Remote Sensing Images
Corrected or not for Topographic Relief Displacement
Dr. Eng. D. Rokos, Professor, N.T.U.A.
V. Andronis, PhD Candidate, N.T.U.A.
Remote Sensing Laboratory, N.T.U.A.
Dr. E.Vozikis, Geomet Ltd
E.Varela, Geologist A.U.Th., Geomet Ltd
One of the fundamental processing techniques of digital remotely sensed images is their supervised classification into categories of land use/cover or other interesting geologic, pedologic, settlement density etc. features (Rokos, 1988, 1989, 1993, Rokos et al., 1995, 1998). During this process, based on data taken from appropriate and sufficient polygons of ground controls which are carried out in homogeneous zones (zones of common data, features, uses, cover, patterns, conditions, etc.) and on their correspondence to the specific digital values of their images (Rokos, 1988, Rokos et al., 1995, 1998), a special algorithm is “trained”, which “ascribes” the remaining areas of the digital remotely sensed image to the entity categories of the ground control polygons corresponding to their digital values.
The supervised classification method used in this research of the greater area of Metsovo Province (approximately 800 km2), was applied using the maximum likelihood algorithm, according to which every pixel of a satellite digital remotely sensed image is ascribed to a category (class), based on the rule that the probability that the specific pixel belongs to the specific category is greater than the probability that it belongs to other categories (Jensen, 1986).
Classifications were attempted:
a) in the multispectral
SPOT XS digital remotely sensed image of
b) in the same multispectral SPOT XS digital remotely sensed image of
The digital elevation model was developed from a stereo pair of SPOT PAN
panchromatic satellite images of
The final thematic land use/cover maps which resulted from the above classifications were compared to the forest map of the Metsovo Province Area provided by the Forest Service. This map was last updated in 1995 and is the most accurate existing documentation of land use in the area (Rokos et al., 1998). Findings from the comparison of the classifications, as to their quality and accuracy, to the area’s forest map are analytically presented in tables and evaluated and their critical interpretation is attempted.
Investigation of the possibilities of the portable radiometer
GER 1500 for the improvement of classifications of digital
remotely sensed images
J. Vassiliadis, PhD Candidate, N.T.U.A.
V. Karathanassi, Dr.
V. Andronis, PhD Candidate, N.T.U.A.
P. Derzekos, undergraduate student, N.T.U.A.
P. Kolliopoulos, undergraduate student, N.T.U.A.
G. Geronymos, undergraduate student, N.T.U.A.
D. Rokos, Professor, N.T.U.A.
Laboratory of Remote Sensing, N.T.U.A.
The character of this study has been
experimental, at the educational and research level, both for the evaluation of
the possibilities for creative co-operation of young scientists of varying
research experience with undergraduate students actively interested in the
application of edge technologies, and the estimation of the actual
possibilities of the portable radiometer GER 1500, in random and non-optimal,
from the remote sensing perspective, conditions of field measurements which had
been realized, during winter, in Metsovo. The
methodology developed was tested, after the Conference, in an area of
In particular, the study attempted to investigate the potential contribution of measurements of reflected radiation (L), obtained with the use of the portable radiometer, in the classification process of satellite remotely sensed images. To this end, a methodology has been developed for the location of training polygons on the basis of appropriate measurements, obtained with the use of the radiometer GER 1500 and two classification methods (minimum distance and maximum likelihood) have been applied on the basis of these data. The classification methods were also later applied with the use of training polygons, which resulted from traditional ground controls. The evaluation of the results demonstrated that a valid atmospheric correction of satellite remotely sensed images is absolutely necessary to improve correlation of their digital numbers with respective radiometer values and would decisively contribute to a successful application of the method.
A proposal for the registration and presentation of mountainous roads and footpaths in Metsovo area
A.Tsagari, Rural and Surveying Engineer, Assistant N.T.U.A.
Laboratory of Photogrammetry, N.T.U.A.
The problems created by massive development of tourism, have led to efforts for milder and friendlier to the environment forms of tourism.
Mountainous areas of
The special information provided with these maps is:
1. Map information on the relief of the terrain, the road net and the footpaths.
2. Recreation information.
3. Cultural information.
4. Environmental information.
The main amount of information on this map results from the interpretation of aerial photographs.
GPS technology for surveying applications
in the area of Metsovo
K. Papazisi, Associate Professor
D. Paradissis, Associate Professor
M. Farsaris, PhD Candidate
Topography Division, Department of Rural and Surveying
After its full development, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is being increasingly used in various surveying projects, in the last few years.
In this paper, the GPS positioning methods, their accuracies and the possible use of the system in the Metsovo area are discussed.
Stone-reliefs of Metsovo
Conservation - Preservation
Conservator of Stone, Assistant Professor, T.E.I. of
Sculptor, Professor, T.E.I. of
Sculptor, Laboratory Collaborator, T.E.I. of
In this paper, the stone-reliefs of Metsovo are analyzed in detail, as well as their problems, their wear and some works are proposed for their conservation and preservation.
The stone-reliefs, which are under examination, are found in several houses, in fountains and churches of Metsovo. They have been created by “carpenters” of Metsovo using local stones, mainly limestones and micaceous schists. Their engraved elements –decorations and inscriptions– denote features of the local life style, which must be preserved, as they offer important information for our cultural heritage.
Frost effects and biological deposits, such as mosses, form the basic factors of wear of the stone-reliefs. The results of their activity on the stone are evident and intense and are displayed with the form of peelings and crackings.
Following the international rules of conservation, for their preservation, before any other conservation intervention, the following works are performed:
1. Analysis of the constructive petrifaction of the stone-reliefs with the physical- chemical method of X-ray diffraction, so that their quantitative and qualitative composition is verified.
2. Drawing and photographical imprint.
3. Imprint of their wears.
Based on the results of those analyses, as well as of
those which will be done on the deposits, and on the former experience gained
by the works of conservation of the stone-reliefs of
1. Pre-consolidations of the peeled material.
2. Mechanical and chemical cleanings.
3. Consolidation with the use of materials that suit the constructive petrifaction of the stone-reliefs.
After the total study of the structural material and its wears, some conclusions are drawn and according to them, proposals are formed for the preservation of the stone-reliefs.
The problems which are created from the activity of physical phenomena, such as frost, are continuous and permanent, having as a result the continuous wear of the stone-reliefs and naturally leading to peelings and crackings, increase of porosity and finally, to the entire destruction of the stone-reliefs.
In order to confront these problems, the conservation of the stone-reliefs is proposed, as well as the creation of plaster casts, from which copies will be reproduced.
These copies should be placed in a show-room, which will be the only way for the preservation of the elements of the traditional sculpture of Metsovo of the past century. The plaster casts will be constructed with the traditional method of constructing moulds and with silicone rubber in situ. They will remain in an archive of the show-room, so that there will be the possibility of reproduction of the copies, with any kind of material.
At the same time, plaster casts offer the possibility for researchers to collect all the elements for study and knowledge of the traditional sculpture and history of the area.
The original sculptures, which will remain in their original place after conservation interventions, will have a prolonged life. It is noted that they must be carefully observed on an annual basis. The necessary protective and preventive interventions should be made, so that the sculptures can be preserved as long as possible, since one can not stop the effects of the physical factors which cause the wear of the stone-reliefs.
The proposal for a show-room creation of copies of
stone-reliefs of Metsovo was applied last year in
The experience, which was gained by the
The carved wood-coating ‘Templon’ of the
of Agia Paraskevi in Metsovo
A study of its decay (deterioration) and proposals for its
conservation and restoration
I. Gerekos, Professor of Applications,
of Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art, T.E.I. of
The art of carved wood-coating in
From the early decades of the 18th century, special types of carved-wood ‘templon’ appear, from which several parts from the background are taken out and, as a result, there are gaps among the faces. Eventually, the work is elegant and at the same time, human faces appear more often. As time goes by, carved wood becomes more vivid. In the middle of the same century, the influence of the European baroque style, which is the most important way of artistic expression, is obvious.
In the rise of the 19th century, carved wood ‘templon’
in Epiros is totally transformed, a change which
strikes the observer, let alone the researcher. A typical example of the 19th
century style in
The most impressive, overwhelming feature of the ‘templon’ is the numerous carved, sacred representations which decorate the round tops of the base and the ‘ketabedes’ (the lower parts of the Despotic Icons). We briefly mention the representation of Eve and Adam (Primitive Justice, the Original Sin, Divine Control, the Expulsion from Heaven), representations from Prodromus’ torture, the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, Christ as the Chief Priest etc. In addition, the decoration is enriched with sprigs which embrace the ‘kions’ (pillars), mermaids, dragons and two-headed eagles. All these are elegantly supplemented by plant decorations.
This ‘templon’ is undoubtedly a masterpiece and is dated from the first half of the 18th century. This can also be confirmed by the Despotic Icons, which are works of Russian Art during the fourth decade of the same century.
Conservation Status - Decay
A detailed examination of the ‘templon’ surface shows evidence of prolonged decay. The following are observed:
1. Intense peelings, during preparation layer, of the gilding and the color of the background. The intensity of the peelings is gradually decreasing in the lower parts.
2. Oxidation and black coatings.
3. Decays in the carving decoration due to environmental moisture and xylophagous insects.
The main causes of decay are the following:
1. Fluctuation of relative moisture and temperature inside the temple have affected the construction materials, contributing to the existence of micro-organisms and insects.
2. Changes in weather conditions made the wood shrink and expand. The fluctuation of temperature and moisture proved that relative moisture was between 49 and 94 %, the yearly average of which is 66% (with a daily fluctuation of - 20 %).
3. Fungi, acids and other substances deriving from them affect the wood in the most detrimental way.
Proposed Conservation Process
1. Mechanical and chemical cleaning on the back side.
2. Replacing of the rotten wooden supports.
3. Consolidation of the wooden carrier with resin saturation.
4. Reinforcement of the detached carved-wooden pieces.
5. Cleaning and removing of the soot from the carved-wooden surface.
6. Reinforcement of the remaining gold and the preparation layer.
7. Perimetrical reinforcement of the peeled parts on the entire surface of the ‘templon’.
8. Aesthetic restoration.
9. Apentomosis and final varnishing.
Methods of analysis
1. Identification of the woods.
2. Analysis of the preparation layer with the Infra-red Spectroscopy method.
3. Investigation of the stratigraphical sections.
4. Selective coloration of the stratigraphical sections, a supplementary method of the I.R. and U.V. Spectroscopy.
5. Identification of the background pigments, using the x-ray Diffraction method.
The significance and the conservation problems of the new
monuments of the Province. The case
of the statues of
the Shepherd, the Logger in Metsovo and A. Diakos in
B. Lampropoulos, Professor of Applications
P. Tzanoulinos, Sculptor-Conservator, Laboratory Collaborator
A. Tzamalis, Conservator of Antiquities and Works of Art
A. Karampotsos, Conservator of Antiquities and Works of Art
Department of Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art, T.E.I. of
The new statues and monuments of the Province decorate towns and villages and harmoniously coexist with the traditional style of every town and village.
Their corrosion phenomena are not usually the same as those in big industrial cities. The most common corrosion factors are high humidity, frost, biological depositions and temperature variations.
The statues of Metsovo were created by
The types of corrosion present include the removal of the protective layer (wax) in specific areas, where corrosion materials appear. As a result of the actions of visitors, there is a removal of “patina” in some areas of the surface. On the whole surface of the statues and especially on the points of water flow, there is a thin green layer of mineral “malachite” and there is “graffiti” on some areas of the surface of the E. Averof statue. A mineral analysis was performed with X - rays diffraction (X.R.D.) for the estimation of the corrosion materials and the depositions.
The surface was cleaned with a mixture of organic solvents in the cases of corroded wax and graffiti, and deionized water, chelated agents (E.D.T.A.) and mechanical methods in the cases of depositions and corrosion materials.
The “patina” was created with the use of potassium sulfide and a mixture of special wax and UV absorber was used for the protection of the surface.
The statue of A. Diakos was created by
The corrosion phenomena of this statue are those most common in areas with atmospheric pollution, such as:
a. Carbonisation, due to the effect of the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere.
b. Black crusts, due to the depositions of atmospheric particles and pollutants.
c. Biological depositions and plants between the marbles.
d. Removal of marble material, due to the flow of the rainwater.
e. Graffiti on lower parts of the statue.
f. Materials and effects of previous conservation procedures.
A quantitative analysis of the structure material and depositions was performed with the use of X-ray diffraction (X.R.D.) and Scanning Electron Microscope (S.E.M.).
The surface was cleaned using deionized water, neutral soaps (Texapon), organic solvents in the case of graffiti, absorbent clays (sepiolite), chelated agents (E.D.T.A.) in the case of black crust and biocides in the case of biological depositions and plants.
The surface was consolidated with the use of a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide.
Gaps were filled with special mortars and marble, after the removal of the materials of previous conservation procedures.
Profile of an Archive in Metsovo
Its significance and the efforts to conserve it
K. Houlis, Assistant Professor,
Department of Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art,
Archive materials usually consist of written documents (manuscripts of printed material) that are not bound. They are comprised of loose documents of a private or public nature, letters, contracts, bills, receipts, various notes, press clippings, and occasionally photographs (negatives and prints) of the family, the personal events, and landscapes etc. Moreover, they can include graphic arts products such as maps, posters, political manifestos, wrapping paper or advertising leaflets.
The Archive material of the Tsanakas house in Metsovo, which was preserved thanks to the care of the town Mayor Mr. Al. Kachrimanis, is an especially significant case. This paper looks into the nature of the Archive and the contribution it can offer to the recording of local history. It also describes the conservation and restoration works on three old family photographs, as well as on fragments of three posters from the beginning of the century. The objects, that were chosen and conserved by students of the Department of Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art of the Technological Educational Institute of Athens, will provide a model for the future restoration of the complete Archive. The project put an emphasis on professional ethics and showed deep respect towards the materials. It remained committed to the rationale on which the conservation of cultural heritage should be based, avoiding any arbitrary intervention or inconsistencies in favour of esthetic or research interests.
Theoretical and Methodological Problems of a Research Program
The purpose of this paper is
to discuss the theoretical and methodological problems of a research program
dealing with the musical tradition of
Proposals for research
In this work we pose a number
of questions that scientific research has to answer. The fact that the period
of Enlightenment is one of the beginnings of modern Greek theater, as well as the fact that many publishers,
translators, playwrights, financial contributors and other components of
theatrical life from
Painting with the
An experience with the children of Metsovo
“Creative Meetings” of the Averof Gallery of Art,
The natural environment itself has always given to man materials and shapes. As a man of art, I thought that the materials of the environment could be expressive means of art. Today that expression is diverse and resourceful, it can surpass the use of the known raw materials. Techniques for the use of natural materials, organic and inorganic, have been salvaged by eponymous and anonymous writers in the Middle Ages and the first Renaissance years.
What I wanted to show the children was the way that man has been intervening in nature, in the past and present times.
The whole project included material processing methods such as crushing, separation, sieving, washing and finally, conversion of the matter into dyeing powder.
The Contribution of Geodesy and Photogrammetry to the
documentation and preservation of our Cultural Inheritance
A proposal for
D.-D. Balodimos, Professor, N.T.U.A.
The present paper deals with
ideas accepted by people involved in the preservation of the Cultural Inheritance.
The concept of the
The different kinds of documentation are stated with emphasis on the Geometrical Documentation, as it is expressed today by the Geodetic and Photogrammetric methods and instrumentation.
Examples of this kind of documentation are presented.
a proposal for the documentation and preservation of our Cultural Inheritance
Culture and Regional Development
The Case of the Region of
E. Kourliouros, Associate Professor, Department of Geography,
R. Mari, Architecture Engineer, Ministry of Culture
Y. Pramagioulis, Economist-Engineer, N.T.U.A.
The world economic crisis that followed the oil
inflation crisis of the 70s, had serious impacts upon
the traditional industrial zones that stimulated the post-war economic
prosperity and social welfare in
In the past, the conservation and exploitation of local historical and cultural assets was considered to be a developmental goal of secondary importance in comparison to the goal of industrial growth. Today, such one-dimensional considerations do not exist any more. It is a common belief that historical and cultural human skills can be a valuable asset for the area’s economic development and social well-being.
In this paper, we
first analyze the broader context of change as
localities are shifting priorities from traditional manufacturing to cultural
industries, and then we examine the problems/prospects of that shift in the
case of the region of
The management of the natural heritage of
Experiences and Perspectives
G. Panagiaris, Dr. Biologist, Professor, Department of Conservation of Antiquities
and Works of Art, T.E.I. of
C. Papaioannou, Biologist
G. Gianatos, Biologist of Wild Nature, MSc
According to the Convention for the protection of natural and cultural heritage (UNESCO 1972), the following can be defined as “natural heritage”:
- Natural monuments made up of natural or biological formations, or groups of similar formations, that are of international importance, from the aesthetic or scientific point of view.
- Geological or physiographic formations and precisely determined areas that are rich in animals or/and plants threatened by extinction, and in species of international importance, from the research point of view.
- Natural landscapes or precisely determined natural areas of international importance, from the research point of view, because of their conservation need or their natural beauty.
In the 1650/86 environmental law for the protection of
natural heritage in
The term ecodevelopment is used in an attempt to surpass the misconception of the seventies, that human beings should be expelled from protected areas.
According to “ecodevelopment”, development planning should favor the protection of nature, taking into account biological and ecological factors, in correlation with the cultural, political and economical dimension and the local social reality as well.
The proper management of ecosystems and the conservation, promotion and protection of natural monuments, are the unique prerequisite for these resources to remain unchanged and fruitful, so that development will be sustainable.
In this paper, typical examples of actions are referred to (i.e. LIFE Zagori, LEADER
Emphasis is given to:
1. The need for an integrated project of regional development and the coordination of secondary actions, in such a way that the quality of life and the protection of the natural and cultural environment are of equal importance.
2. The need for an up-to-date improvement of the legal framework.
3. The role of public education at various levels, in order to create a public behavior which will support sustainability.
Traditional tanning (leather processing technique) in Ioannina,
from the late 19th to the early 20th century
V. Rokou, Associate Professor,
Tanning, a handicraft with a long history in
the town of
The issues of concern for the researcher into tanning in Ioannina are connected with the function of the handicraft town, the special relationship experienced by its inhabitants as a labour force between tradition and modernisation and the technical procedure signifying the move to machine production.
Research into the ‘tabakika’, as the tanneries are called, will reveal the size of the local handicraft in terms of the economic development of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The tanning handicraft and techniques reflect the traditional character of the local economy but also, the effort to modernise traditional society.
The ‘tabakika’ of Ioannina, a series of workrooms along the lake shore, in the area called Sharava, acquired economic importance.
They produce top quality leather brought to the market
which is controlled by
It is also the time of a turn toward the european economic policy of the factory. The reorganisation of the town shows the orientation of economic life to the factory and an investment in the idea of industrialisation, as is revealed in the architectural reorganisation of the ‘tabakika’. Yet, circumstances were prohibitive for the formation and expansion of industrialisation.
The transition of the town can be observed in the urban plan and the architectural construction of the mansions and workrooms. It was the lake which attracted the set up of the workrooms in the specific areas for leather processing.
The low buildings of the area, built with mud bricks, seem to have been
constructed prior to the 19th century, but the two and three floor buildings,
which were connected with the tanneries, were constructed in the late 19th
century. The area was built with an adding architectural disposition, from the
houses in the street which, since 1931 is called Zalokosta,
in the area known as Sharava, toward the
The workshops of silver craftsmanship in Ioannina
in the 19th and early 20th centuries
E. Papaioannou, PhD Candidate,
of History and Archaeology,
The art of gold and silver craftsmanship, known in both its ecclesiastic and secular versions, has, in Ioannina, a grand continuing history of economic and cultural importance.
In this paper, an approach to the phenomenon of the creation and
reproduction of the local cultural event of silvercraftsmanship
is attempted, providing answers as to the time of its appearance, its
flourishing and finally, the formation of the economic organization of
silversmiths in Ioannina. It is stressed that
Attention is also paid to the movement and employment of the technical
group, as labor force, in the framework of the
international division of labor. The emigration of
the people of
The course of development and decline of the art of gold
(from the major centre to the periphery and from the periphery to the centre)
E. Vlachopoulou-Karabina, PhD Candidate, Department of History
This study starts with an analysis of the
concept of gold embroidery and an account of the transplantation of this art to
First period (16th -17th centuries): Ioannina was the major centre. Testimonies to the continuation of the art there (references in commercial documents, letters and testimony of travellers on the trade in silk, silk fabrics and gold embroidery materials, intended for traders and tailors) are recorded; transition from the monk or nun craftsman/ woman of the monastic centre to the secular “gold tailor”-gold embroiderer.
Second period: (18th century): distinctive development of the periphery and folk art at its zenith. Its development is traced in the following areas:
a. Moschopolis -a model community in the period of Turkish rule- gold embroiderers’ workshops.
b. Lioutzi-Politsiani: itinerant “gold tailors” (Zagori, Pogonia)-Sumptuous bridal dresses (ostentation of wealth brought from abroad on the costume).
c. Kalarrytes-Metsovo-Syrrako: renowned “gold tailors” and gold embroiderers - impossibility of establishing a major craft industry workshop.
Third period (late 18th to the third quarter of the 19th century): decline of the peripheral centres (destruction of Moschopolis-Kalarrytes-Syrrako; migration to themajor urban centres) and recovery of the central importance of Ioannina: Esnafs (corporations), syrmakesides (gold embroiderers)-terzides (tailors) (major workshops -productions-exports).
In the last period (third quarter of the 19th century - to the present),
the decline of the art is traced (adoption of European manner of dress after
the liberation of
River Arachthos: a source of life or electricity?
The dilemma over Public Power Corporation dams
Lawyer, President “
Recently, it is commonly stated that “the next
war will be a war on water”. As the global ecological movement has stressed,
large projects aiming at the excessive exploitation of rivers’ water, usually
lead to an even greater water shortage and intensify the problem. The dimension
of geographical inequalities is sacrificing the water resources of
This choice will have adverse impacts:
1. on the area’s geological stability,
2. on the area’s political and historical heritage,
3. on the ecological stability of the gorge and the ecosystem.
The presentation of these dangers, following related actions of the area’s inhabitants, has set back the project’s materialization plans.
The discussion on the dilemma over an investment offering short-term employment or a plan for the sustainable development of the river shore zone and the mountains, concerns us all.
An approach to the issue of intervention in the Aoos environment
K. Moraitis, Architecture Engineer, Assistant Professor, N.T.U.A.
K. Ntaflos, Architecture Engineer, N.T.U.A.
A. Panagouli, Architecture Engineer, N.T.U.A.
It is obvious that the project “settlements of
ecological education at the
By these means, proposals and conclusions are useful and applicable in
the cases of other interventions, such as the artificial
The meanings that we can give to various natural spaces help us in the creation of forms in the landscape. Natural structures are recognised (as being indicative of the quality of the natural processes which are performed), and can be transferred and realised in a “building-structure”, whose basic structural elements originate from “pictures-images-messages” of the lake environment.
Interventions in space -settlements intend to support- assist the closer contact of man with nature, taking into account, in the structure, the condition of reversability. This reversability expresses the temporariness of the structure, which can be dismantled and removed, leaving no traces in the landscape. Furthermore, the demand for energy efficiency and autonomy, accomplished with the use of renewable sources of energy (bioclimatic design), and the application of active and passive systems (energy design), refers to the self-sufficiency of the structure.
Finally, the contribution of ecological design (which allows the recycling of the structure), knowledge of hydrobiology and physiology and the gradation of the accessibility of natural spaces, give the touch of a gentle approach.
Creation of a protected corridor between Mount Olympus
and international expediency
C. Tsipiras, Civil Engineer, Geographer, Chairman of the Greek section of “Mountain Wilderness”, Member of the interdisciplinary network “Mountain Forum”
The theory of intermediate spaces or corridors
is one of the most modern ideas of ecological land use and the matter of the
creation of a protected corridor between Mt Olympus and
Identity and scale:
The local values for the
Th. Vlastos, Assistant Professor,
Department of Rural and Surveying Engineering, N.T.U.A.
Ô. Birbili, Dr. Environmental Economics,
Human scale and identity are principles which are still maintained in the non-urban space, since this is the space of the small sizes and of cultural tradition. Big cities squash human scales and technology, upon which they base their development, levels cultures and eliminates differences.
However, local cultures are subject to the impacts arisen from the accelerating expansion of the urban conurbation and the installation of the big scale interconnection networks. Local cultures are shrinking and both their role and their weight are determined by decisions that are taken in their absence, reducing them to servants of specific city demands.
Vis-a-vis the big scales of
The Contribution of Hellenic Traditional Architecture
to a Contemporary Bioclimatic
S. Kostoula, BSc Architectural Engineering,
MA Architecture, Advanced Environmental & Energy Studies
This paper is a study of Hellenic traditional architecture within the scope of an effort to establish a method which would enable architects to design contemporary, comfortable buildings.
An increasing number of people complain that the modern buildings they
occupy are uncomfortable. This is an undoubtedly existing problem. Before the
industrial age, a substantial number of buildings were constructed without any
facilities such as artificial lighting, central heating and air-conditioning.
On the other hand, these buildings still had to tackle the same climatic
conditions as in modern times. In each type of indigenous architecture found
everywhere in the world, in
The study of the country’s mountainous region forms a distinct part of this paper, in which the following are examined and analysed:
· The specific climatic characteristics.
This description aims to establish a firm understanding of the conditions and problems that have to be tackled by buildings within the zone.
· The thermal requirements.
Arrangements that need to be made for the occupants to be comfortable; to tackle the climate described in the above section successfully.
· Design principles.
Designate principles which need to govern the design of any structure within the zone.
· Analysis of particular examples.
This analysis aims to establish the relationship between the archetypes and guidelines outlined in the climatic characteristics and design principles sections.
This study aims to help architects in their effort to exploit the climatic conditions of every Hellenic mountainous region in order to achieve their goal more easily, better, and saving energy, while contributing in the protection of the environment.
The dry stone wall: retaining the soil, maintaining the culture
E. Pangratiou, Architect-Geographer, EU Program Coordinator,
Zagori Developmental Society
landscape of terraces or “pezoulia” is very much in evidence in
It is therefore necessary that systematic research be carried out in order to establish:
(a) · which settlements have terrace-like formations in their vicinity;
· to what uses terraces are put (which plants are cultivated in which places);
· which dry stone building techniques are employed depending on locally available materials;
· what other dry stone constructions, such as fountains, cisterns, huts, threshing floors and mills, there are, which constitute an important part of the architectural heritage of agricultural Epirus;
(b) · ways of dealing with dry stone constructions in need of preservation.
The above items mark out a common area of research for such disciplines as architecture, structural engineering, environmental studies, geography, agricultural sciences, animal husbandry, ethnography, archaeology, economics ...
In Zagori, and in the context of three European programs, an effort is under way whose aim is to preserve terraces used in agriculture, as well as to restore dry stone constructions and bring them back to use. Transnational meetings of study groups from various Mediterranean areas make it possible to exchange experiences and ideas concerning the preservation of dry stone building.
He arrived in Canada … departed for the U.S.A.
Contribution to the history of the immigration
K. Karanatsis, Sociologist
Excerpts from the “Social Life” column of the “Aoos” provincial newspaper (1913-1958) outlining the phenomena of immigration and urbanization during this period.
Cartography of the immigration movement from the
Design and function of a modern cheese plant
V. Andritsos, Chemical Engineer, N.T.U.A.
Ê.Tzia, Assistant Professor, N.T.U.A.
Laboratory of Food Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, N.T.U.A.
In this work, data on the amounts of the main cheeses produced, imported
and exported in
The selection of location in relation to the raw milk supply and the particular characteristics of the production area, the design of the cheese plant, the construction, the utilities and the necessary equipment are presented. Also, the hygiene practices for the workers, the facilities, the raw milk and the equipment according to directive 93/43 EC and HACCP are noted.
The teaching of translation: a demand and an achievement of
A. Alexakis, Professor of translation, Special Assessor,
After focusing on contemporary Western society and the factors which demon-strate the significance, extent and other features of translation activity today, the paper attempts to compare and contrast that picture with ‘traditional’ translation in order to accentuate the differentia specifica between the situation in the past and the present.
That difference -which could be summed up as the contrast between amateurism and professionalism, between the self-taught translator and his ‘qualified’ counterpart- then forms the basis for a study leading to conclusions which permit an answer to the following questions: why has it only now been realised that there is a need for translation to be taught? and, what exactly should be the content of that teaching?
After references to the need for the translator to be able to understand texts of all kinds and be able to compile equally varied primary texts in the destination language, the paper draws additional evidence in connection with the answers required from a brief analysis of the problems raised ipso facto by the process of translation.
The paper concludes that the factors to which it refers and which it has analysed would make possible the preparation of a curriculum for teaching translation - a curriculum based on documentation rather than intuition, and one which would meet both demands of the subject itself and the requirements of modern civilisation.*
* ÌåôÜöñáóç, John Solman.
Uncontrolled Landfills and Demands for their Reincorporation to the Environment
A. Vgenopoulos, Professor, NTUA
Dr. D. Katsinis, Geologist,
Department of Mining Engineering and Metallurgy, Section of Geological Sciences, NTUA
The disposal of urban wastes consists one of the most serious problems of the modern communities, mainly because there is no disposal technology without side effects to thea environment. As we all know there are a lot of illegal landfills where various municipalities or communities bury or burn their waste, without any concern for the specifications demanded.
So the main problems observed to that sites are a) The gas production and b) The leac ages derived from the mass of the wastes. In the present work, we are occupied with the first problem, that of gas production, using results from our study in the landfill of Ano Nea Liosia. With the term of gas production we mean the production of the mixture of gases known as biogas. We think that this problem is the most important because it affects immediately our try for landfill recovery. That can be faced in the following ways:
a) Use of earth covers with the right mineralogical composition.
b) Detection of areas with increased rates of biogas production.
c) Suction of the biogas.
In the present work, we deal with the first two ways mentioned above. In particular, as will be shown by the interpretation of the analytical results in our study of the Ano Nea Liosia landfill, an appropriate mineralogical composition of the earth cover used can, first, increase the percentage of biogas retention-adsorption and, second, the biogas with the contained in the earth cover minerals can produce series of chemical reactions, resulting in the reduction of great quantities of gases such as methane and others.
Static and Dynamic Analysis of Valleybridge Deck Slabs Reinforced with Beams
E.J. Sapountzakis, Lecturer,
J.T. Katsikadelis, Professor,
Institute of Structural Analysis and Aseismic Research, NTUA